Adrafinil (Olmifon) is a eugeroic agent originally synthesized in the 1970s by chemists at Group Lafon, a pharmaceutical company based in France. Following its synthesis, researchers discovered that adrafinil induced wakefulness in humans, and by the mid-1980s, it was being marketed as an experimental treatment for narcolepsy. Though its exact pharmacodynamics aren’t fully elucidated, adrafinil is believed to elicit an array of neurologic effects that enhance psychomotor vigilance.
The multitude of hypothesized neurologic effects associated with adrafinil administration include: alpha-1 receptor agonism, dopamine transporter (DAT) inhibition, norepinephrine transporter (NET) inhibition, orexin modulation, and GABAergic mediation. It may also increase levels of glutamate, histamine, serotonin, and alter neuroelectrical activity (decreasing delta brain waves). As a result of these effects, many adrafinil users report: subjective increases in motivation, cognitive enhancement (nootropic effects), and decreased fatigue.
Though adrafinil has largely been usurped by safer, more efficacious eugeroic agents such as Provigil (Modafinil) and Nuvigil (Armodafinil), it remains popular due to its unregulated status in the United States. This means that unlike Modafinil, a Schedule IV controlled-substance, armoafinil can be attained without a medical prescription. If you end up taking adrafinil rather than modafinil (or armodafinil), it is important to beware of potential side effects and adverse reactions.
Adrafinil Side Effects & Adverse Reactions (List)
When taking adrafinil, it is necessary to understand that the number and severity of side effects you experience is subject to individual variation. In other words, your experience may be entirely different than that of another adrafinil user. Some users may not notice any side effects at all, while others may report a barrage of unwanted reactions. Below is a comprehensive compilation of adrafinil side effects. The most commonly experienced side effects associated with adrafinil include: anxiety, headaches, skin irritation, and stomach pain.
Agitation: Many individuals taking adrafinil have reported increases in agitation and/or inner restlessness. Sometimes agitation may be a sign that the dosage of adrafinil is too high and/or being metabolized at a slower-than-average rate. Should you have ingested a high dose of adrafinil, odds that you’ll experience agitation are increased. Those with preexisting neuropsychiatric disorders (e.g. anxiety) and/or abnormal levels of neurotransmitters may be more prone to agitation as a side effect.
Allergy-like effects: Some users report side effects resembling traditional seasonal allergies after they start taking adrafinil. This may lead some users to mistakenly believe that their allergies are flaring-up, as opposed to experiencing an allergy-like effect from the adrafinil. If you notice a runny nose, itchy throat, nasal drip, etc. – you’re not alone, many others have reported this as a side effect of adrafinil. Since adrafinil is known to increase concentrations of histamine, it is likely the elevated histamine that could provoke these effects.
Anxiety: Adrafinil is understood to increase psychomotor vigilance via affecting the neurotransmission of norepinephrine and dopamine. Simultaneous increases in stimulatory neurotransmitters (e.g. norepinephrine and dopamine) can provoke feelings of anxiety in some users. Should you experience anxiety as a side effect, it may be a sign that you’re unable to tolerate adrafinil and/or that your dosage warrants reduction. Those with preexisting anxiety disorders and related-conditions (e.g. PTSD) should be especially cautious of this side effect.
Appetite reduction: It’s no secret that eugeroics (and other forms of psychostimulants) reduce and/or suppress appetite. The greater the dosage of adrafinil you’re taking, the more you should expect your appetite to be reduced. The specific mechanisms that facilitate this appetite decrease aren’t fully known, but heightened activation of the sympathetic branch of the ANS, as well as increases in dopamine and norepinephrine may play a role. If this appetite reduction is sustained for a long-term, it may promote weight loss.
Blood pressure increase: Although adrafinil isn’t regarded as a traditional psychostimulant, it is understood to bolster psychomotor arousal. Increases in arousal are likely facilitated via increased norepinephrine concentrations (and other stimulatory neurotransmitters), sympathetic activation, and decreased slow wave neuroelectrical activity. These mechanisms may also spike an individual’s blood pressure. Hence, anytime you’re using a stimulatory agent such as adrafinil, blood pressure should be monitored as to avoid a hypertensive crisis. If you have high blood pressure, always consult a medical professional to verify safety of adrafinil usage.
Dizziness: Nearly any drug that alters homeostatic neurophysiologic functions may induce dizziness. If you’re feeling dizzy while taking adrafinil, it may be necessary to discontinue treatment and/or reduce the dosage. In some users, the dizziness may stem from heightened levels of stimulation, blood flow changes, and/or high anxiety. That said, the dizziness associated with adrafinil is generally considered of mild and usually isn’t bothersome.
Dry mouth: Many users can vouch for the unwanted, yet common side effect of dry mouth. If you feel as if your mouth is no longer producing adequate saliva, you may be experiencing adrafinil-induced xerostomia. In this case, your salivary glands may have decreased production of saliva as a result of complex physiologic changes induced by adrafinil. Some users may notice that dry mouth subsides after the body adapts to adrafinil, while others report that it may worsen. Since dry mouth can lead to halitosis, poorer oral health, and is generally annoying – it may be wise to discontinue adrafinil and/or opt for a different drug.
Headaches: Perhaps the single most common side effect reported among those taking adrafinil is headaches. The headaches that you experience may be mild, moderate, or severe (to the extent of migraines). Usually the higher the dosage of adrafinil taken, the greater your propensity to experience a headache. Headaches caused by adrafinil may be a result of neurochemical-induced vasoconstriction and/or changes in blood flow.
Heart abnormalities: If you have a heart condition and/or a history of cardiac problems, it is necessary to consult a medical professional while taking adrafinil to avoid inducing further damage. Adrafinil users have reported changes in heart rhythms, palpitations, and/or tachycardia. Some speculate that adrafinil usage (especially at high dosages) may be detrimental to long-term cardiac health even among those without preexisting heart conditions.
Hyperexcitability: A side effect that has been reported in medical literature among those using adrafinil is hyperexcitability. Hyperexcitability is characterized by extreme reactions and sensitivities to stimuli, usually resulting from heightened neurophysiologic arousal. In some cases, individuals exhibiting hyperexcitability may appear restless, unable to tolerate bright lights/loud noises, and/or may exhibit uncontrollable movements.
Insomnia: Adrafinil and related drugs were engineered principally to promote wakefulness, hence being prescribed for the treatment of excessive sleepiness and fatigue. High-dose usage and/or usage late in the day may cause insomnia (likely from norepinephrine, dopamine, and orexin increases – as well as suppressions in slow brain waves). This side effect can usually be mitigated by taking adrafinil early in the morning (first-thing) to ensure that it wears off by nighttime. That said, some users may also need to lower their dosage to avoid insomnia as a side effect.
Irritability: Individuals taking adrafinil may become irritable for numerous reasons. Irritability from adrafinil may be fueled by increased activation of the sympathetic nervous system (triggering the fight-or-flight response), as well as increases in transmission of norepinephrine. Furthermore, since some individuals may take adrafinil specifically to increase productivity, when interrupted, they may lash out with anger at others. Other possible causes of irritability among adrafinil users include: reduced theta wave/delta wave activity and overstimulation (from high doses).
Itchiness: In some cases, users may notice a low-grade itchiness throughout their entire body. If after taking adrafinil, you have the urge to constantly itch your skin (almost as if its dry), it’s likely a result of the drug. Adrafinil (and related compounds) are thought to increase the release of histamine, which is well-known to cause us to itch. This itchiness may feel similar to when you get an allergic reaction, but may not be as severe. That said, be sure to rule out the possibility that the itchiness is a sign of a more serious medical condition with a medical professional.
Jitteriness: You may notice that you’re unable to relax, are nervous, and excessively fidgety when taking adrafinil. The “jitters” may be difficult to cope with, but may be a sign that your dosage is too high. If you are still feeling jittery on a low dosage, the potency of adrafinil may be too great for your body to handle. Jitteriness as a side effect is usually a result of excess stimulation, therefore, a dosage reduction and/or a low-grade anxiolytic (e.g. chamomile tea) may combat this effect.
Liver damage: A serious adverse reaction associated with frequent, long-term adrafinil usage is hepatotoxicity (liver damage). The reason most users prefer other eugeroics (e.g. modafinil) over adrafinil is due to its lower risk of this effect. Adrafinil usage increases levels of liver enzymes (SGOT, SGPT, GGPT, hepatic alkaline phosphatase), signifying that it likely compromises liver function. Although some have claimed supplements like “milk thistle” may ameliorate adrafinil-induced hepatotoxicity, these claims are unsupported by data. Anyone using adrafinil consistently over a long-term should test liver function regularly. Should signs of liver damage emerge, discontinuation of adrafinil is necessary.
Muscle tension: You may experience a noticeable increase in muscle tension when taking adrafinil. This tension may lead to body cramping, muscle pain, and/or stiffness. To reduce the likelihood of tension, you should consider reducing your dosage and/or taking steps to decrease your stress response. If adrafinil makes you feel increasingly anxious, nervous, and stressed – it’s a sign that your sympathetic nervous system is activated, which facilitates muscle tension. Engaging in progressive relaxation may prove beneficial for combatting adrafinil-induced muscle tension.
Nausea: A less common side effect associated with adrafinil is nausea. If you feel nauseated after you take your first dose, it could be a sign of a serious adverse reaction (especially if accompanied by a skin rash). In other cases, the nausea could be a mere sign of over-arousal (excess stimulation) and/or possibly excess histamine released after taking adrafinil. High histamine and/or histamine intolerance can make some individuals feel nauseous.
Facial movements: A serious adverse effect reported by adrafinil users is orofacial dyskinesia. Orofacial dyskinesia is a condition characterized by repetitive, involuntary movements of the facial muscles and mouth. What’s scary is that orofacial dyskinesia may be induced by adrafinil, but remain even after treatment is discontinued. In some cases, it is possible that the involuntary facial twitching may be permanent. Should you notice the onset of orofacial dyskinesia after taking adrafinil, seek immediate medical attention and cease adrafinil usage. Theories regarding the cause of orofacial dyskinesia among adrafinil users include: increased presynaptic dopamine levels and/or poor hepatic metabolism (leading to reduced clearance).
Palpitations: Don’t be surprised if you notice your heart fluttering or perceive it to beat louder (or more intensely) than usual. Heart palpitations can be induced by changes in arousal – the greater an individual’s arousal, the more likely palpitations are to occur. Since adrafinil also increases vigilance, you may become focused and/or fixated on this particular physiologic reaction. Reducing dosage and keeping stress low may reduce the degree to which these are perceived as bothersome. That said, be sure to consult a medical professional to rule out other potential cardiac irregularities.
Restlessness: Feeling restless while taking adrafinil is relatively common. Any drug that increases internal arousal may induce restlessness. If you feel jittery, fidgety, and/or have trouble sitting still, take it as a sign that you’re overstimulated. This overstimulation may impair cognitive performance (because you cannot remain calm). A dosage reduction may effectively mitigate and/or reduce the side effect of restlessness.
Skin rash / irritation: Onset of serious conditions such as Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis, DRESS syndrome, and Stevens-Johnson Syndrome are associated with drugs like adrafinil. Though your chances of experiencing any of the aforementioned conditions is relatively low, realize that they should all be treated as medical emergencies. If you notice a skin rash, hives, skin blisters, or swollen body parts – seek immediate medical attention. Assuming all serious conditions are ruled out, your itchy skin/rash may be a result of histamine release.
Tachycardia: An abnormally rapid heartbeat may occur among a subset of adrafinil users. Understand that if you experience concerning heart rate changes, such as an excessively rapid heartbeat, it is necessary to consult a medical professional. Tachycardia is commonly reported among those taking agents that upregulate neurophysiologic activity and adrafinil is no exception.
Sleep problems: In addition to the inability to fall asleep (insomnia), many individuals report other sleep disturbances and/or poor sleep quality while using adrafinil. Adrafinil may alter your circadian rhythm, upregulate stimulatory neurotransmitters, and decrease ability to produce slow neuroelectrical activity (e.g. delta waves). Without the ability to produce sufficient theta/delta waves, the brain may fail to adequately transition through normative sleep stages and cycles. This may lead you to wake up frequently throughout the night, impair learning and/or memory, and feel excess grogginess the following day.
Stomach aches: It is possible for adrafinil to cause stomach aches and/or pains during treatment. These stomach aches may be a sign that you’ve taken too high of a dose or simply that your physiology is unable to tolerate the drug. Stomach aches could also be indicative of a more serious medical issue such as hepatotoxicity. If you’re experiencing severe stomach aches from adrafinil, consult a medical professional to evaluate your liver function.
Sweating: Sweating profusely throughout the day and/or at night may stem from adrafinil usage. Most substances that alter neurochemistry can induce excessive, unwanted sweating as a side effect. In some cases, this sweating may be transient and may eventually subside as your body adjusts to adrafinil. However, severe sweating should be taken as a sign that adrafinil may not be a good fit for your biochemistry.
Weight loss: Don’t be surprised if you lose a bit of weight from regular adrafinil usage. Many individuals lose weight on closely-related drugs like modafinil and armodafinil. (Read: “Modafinil & Weight Loss“). Weight loss likely occurs for a multitude of reasons including: appetite reduction, upregulated metabolism, decreased food cravings/pleasure from eating (likely from dopaminergic modulation), and possibly a result of increased motivation or energy – prompting greater physical activity.
- Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15300665
Note: It is important to note that above is a compilation of side effects that may occur among those using adrafinil. Should you experience any side effects, have questions about them, and/or have questions about adrafinil – consult a medical professional.
Factors that influence Adrafinil side effects
It is necessary to realize that not everyone experiences the same specific side effects while taking adrafinil. In fact, some users may report zero side effects, while others may report a barrage of severe adverse reactions. Severity and side effects are subject to individual variation, based on factors such as: dosage, co-ingested supplements (or drugs), term of administration, and hepatic metabolism.
Dosage (Low vs. High)
The higher the dosage of adrafinil that you ingest, the greater the likelihood you’ll experience side effects. This is due to the fact that ingesting high doses (of any exogenous substance) alters neurophysiology of the user to a greater extent than lower doses. At high doses, more of the adrafinil necessitates hepatic metabolism, a greater number of metabolites will be formed, and ultimately more of the drug is circulating throughout your system.
Greater concentrations of adrafinil in circulation means that the drug is exerting a more significant effect over homeostatic physiologic processes. When these processes are disrupted to a significant enough extent (especially at high doses), the user observes side effects. Since the standard dose of adrafinil falls between 600 mg and 1200 mg, individuals taking 600 mg or less should expect fewer side effects compared to someone taking 1200 mg or more.
Additionally, it is necessary to consider the frequency at which adrafinil is administered. Someone taking 600 mg twice per day (b.i.d.) may endure more side effects than someone taking 900 mg once per day simply as a result of the greater cumulative dose (1200 mg) and/or a longer duration of effect. Moreover, the potency of individual dosages plus frequency of administration (which will determine cumulative daily dose) can influence adrafinil side effects.
Co-ingestion of supplements or drugs along with adrafinil is likely to increase severity and number of side effects you’ll experience. Adrafinil is largely metabolized via hepatic enzymes in the liver, getting converted to modafinil, which is further metabolized via similar enzymes. A multiplicity of isoenzymatic pathways are speculated to facilitate adrafinil’s metabolism including: CYP1A2, CYP2B6, CYP3A4, and CYP2C19.
As a result, administration of any supplement or drug that alters function of the aforementioned pathways may interfere with adrafinil metabolism. For example, drugs like Luvox, Mclobemide, and Prozac all inhibit CYP2C19 isoenzyme function. Taking any of these agents along with adrafinil may therefore impair the ability of CYP2C19 to metabolize adrafinil, resulting in: slower metabolism, elevated plasma concentrations, an increased elimination half-life, and ultimately more side effects.
Until you know exactly how you respond to standalone adrafinil, taking it with any other supplement and/or drug may significantly increase your risk of an adverse reaction (e.g. hepatotoxicity). Despite its status as an unregulated substance in the United States, adrafinil should be recognized as a potent pharmaceutical drug, with perhaps greater risk of contraindications compared to regulated drugs like modafinil and armodafinil. Even if you take another substance that doesn’t undergo hepatic metabolism, it still may interact neurochemically – triggering adverse effects.
Term of administration
The cumulative duration over which you’ve taken adrafinil may also influence side effects that you experience. Some individuals may report experiencing no side effects over a short-term, but notice that side effects start to emerge over a moderate and/or long-term of administration. Others may report significant short-term side effects, but find that with continued administration, these short-term reactions subside and they’re able to tolerate adrafinil fairly well.
If you recently started taking adrafinil, it may be necessary to consider that short-term side effects may occur because your body hasn’t fully adapted to the adrafinil. It may take several days and/or weeks for your neurophysiology to adjust to the drug – this is common with any pharmaceutical agent; side effects may subside with regular usage. Side effects may also be more likely over the short-term due to dosing adjustments; you may need to recalibrate your dosing to figure out what you can tolerate.
Another subset of users may report no side effects over the short-term, but notice that with regular long-term adrafinil usage, side effects emerge and/or become severe. Side effects that emerge over a long-term may be a result of dosage increases (due to tolerance) and/or a cumulative neurophysiologic toll taken from accommodating adrafinil. For example, a long-term user may experience poorer liver function with continued usage, possibly leading to hepatotoxicity and/or other adverse effects.
Hepatic function + CYP450 genes
Individuals with compromised liver function and/or any form of hepatic impairment should refrain from using adrafinil. Hepatic impairment is known to downregulate function of isoenzymes such as CYP1A2, CYP2B6, CYP3A4, and CYP2C19 – all of which facilitate adrafinil metabolism. Decreased functionality of these enzymes [as a result of hepatic impairment] may lead to elevated plasma concentrations of adrafinil metabolites, thereby provoking more side effects.
Prior to ingesting adrafinil, it is necessary to get your liver checked to ensure that it isn’t impaired. Should you have any preexisting form of hepatic impairment (whether known or unknown), adrafinil may induce hepatotoxicity and/or increase severity of other side effects (as a result of suboptimal adrafinil metabolism). Even those with normative hepatic health prior to using adrafinil should regularly test liver function to rule out adrafinil-induced hepatic impairment; which in turn can cause more side effects.
Additionally, since individuals may exhibit polymorphisms of several aforestated isoenzymes involved in adrafinil metabolism, it is necessary to consider potential implications of polymorphic expression. Someone considered a poor CYP1A2 or CYP2C19 metabolizer would exhibit nonfunctional alleles of these genes, leading to decreased expression of necessary hepatic isoenzymes to metabolize adrafinil. If you’re a poor CYP1A2, CYP2B6, CYP3A4, or CYP2C19 metabolizer – you may be more susceptible to adrafinil side effects than someone with normative enzymatic expression.
Since adrafinil isn’t federally regulated, it is sold by numerous companies online, each synthesizing their product in different laboratories and shipping their product from different countries. One adrafinil product may ship from India, another from China, etc. Most consumers have no way of accurately verifying whether their specific adrafinil batch has any impurities and/or other chemical abnormalities, but some may exist and could provoke side effects.
While all adrafinil should theoretically be the same chemical, some users may note that they experience side effects more with one source than another. One source may provide a cleaner effect with fewer side effects than the other. The source provoking more side effects may be laden with impurities and/or being sold by an untrustworthy vendor simply trying to maximize profits without regard for consumer safety.
Consider that any impurities, other chemicals, and/or even a bad adrafinil batch could prompt side effects. It may be worth paying a bit of extra money to get adrafinil from a quality source to avoid risk of contaminants and/or a suboptimal product. That said, simply getting a prescription for Provigil or Nuvigil from a medical professional should trump adrafinil and mitigate risk of impurities/contamination.
Adrafinil: Do the benefits outweigh the side effects?
If you’re taking adrafinil, it is necessary to contemplate whether the perceived therapeutic (or “nootropic“) benefits outweigh the side effects. Assuming you’re taking adrafinil and experiencing major improvements in narcolepsy, excessive daytime sleepiness, and/or productivity – without any side effects – it may be worth continuing. On the other hand, if you’re taking adrafinil and aren’t getting any major benefit, but experience an onslaught of adverse effects – discontinuation is an easy decision.
It may be tougher to decide whether to continue adrafinil usage if side effects are relatively equipotent to the therapeutic effects. For example, if after taking adrafinil you no longer feel fatigued and are getting more work done, but on the flipside you experience excruciating migraines and insomnia, it may be difficult to decide whether continued usage is warranted.
In most cases, if there’s no clear-cut winner between the benefits and side effects, it is best to err on the side of caution via discontinuation. Any side effect and/or adverse reaction from adrafinil should be interpreted as a signal from your body that it isn’t a good fit for your neurophysiology. Furthermore, since there are numerous related pharmaceuticals with safer side effect profiles (e.g. modafinil, armodafinil, etc.), if you’re experiencing unwanted side effects – discontinuation of adrafinil need not be a difficult decision.
Possible ways to reduce Adrafinil side effects
If you’re experiencing side effects from adrafinil, there may be some ways in which you can mitigate them. Mitigation strategies to reduce adrafinil side effects include: dosage reduction, co-supplementation, taking it with food, avoiding other supplements, etc. Prior to implementing any of these mitigation strategies, consult a medical professional to verify alleged safety and/or efficacy.
- Dosage reduction: Perhaps the easiest way to eliminate a majority of adrafinil side effects is to reduce the dosage you’re taking. Though dosage reduction may compromise its therapeutic efficacy, it should also decrease the occurrence and/or severity of side effects. You may want to start with an extremely low dose and titrate upwards until you’ve found a “sweet spot” in dosing – or the minimal effective dose. Find the lowest dose that provides therapeutic benefit without side effects.
- Co-supplementation: Another way to reduce the likelihood of side effects is to supplement with agents that may mitigate certain side effects from adrafinil. For example, some users worried about liver function may supplement with milk thistle extract to improve liver health. Others dealing with insomnia may sip some chamomile tea late in the day to increase parasympathetic activation, etc. Co-supplementation should be done strategically based on the specific side effects you’re experiencing. All contraindications should be ruled out prior to co-administration of another supplement with adrafinil.
- Take with food: The degree to which food alters the pharmacokinetics of adrafinil isn’t well understood. Many speculate that administration of adrafinil with food may prolong absorption and alter metabolism. For that reason, if you take adrafinil on an empty stomach and experience unwanted side effects, it is possible that administering the same dosage after a meal may reduce severity of adverse reactions. That said, be cognizant of the fact that pharmacokinetic alterations [as induced by food] may also affect the efficacy of adrafinil.
- Avoid other supplements: Some individuals fail to evaluate potential contraindications associated with concomitant administration of supplements/drugs with adrafinil. Then they take adrafinil, have a serious adverse reaction or cornucopia of side effects and wonder why they have tolerability issues. If you’re taking another supplement and/or pharmaceutical drug along with adrafinil, it is necessary to rule out contraindications with a medical professional. Many side effects experienced on adrafinil users can be chalked up to interactions with co-ingested agents. For this reason, you may want to avoid other supplements/drugs until you know how well you’re able to tolerate adrafinil as a standalone treatment.
- Continue using: As was already discussed, some side effects may emerge when an individual initially begins taking adrafinil and subside with continued usage. Side effects sometimes occur due to the fact that the body isn’t fully acclimated to adrafinil. With repeated, ongoing administration (e.g. for weeks), a person’s neurophysiology may adapt to the drug and side effects may diminish. Obviously if side effects are severe, the strategy to “continue using” isn’t practical.
- Discontinuation: If you’re experiencing moderate and/or severe side effects from adrafinil, the most logical strategy to cope with them is to discontinue treatment. Although this isn’t really a mitigation strategy, it’s the smartest strategy if you’re concerned about long-term health. Adrafinil is known to yield a greater number of deleterious effects (e.g. hepatotoxicity) than its successors (modafinil and armodafinil). Realize that even if you need to discontinue adrafinil, there are safer eugeroic agents available.
Have you experienced Adrafinil side effects?
If you’ve taken adrafinil, mention whether you experienced side effects in the comments section below. For those that experienced side effects, mention when you first became aware of their emergence. Be sure to document the severity of each respective side effect (on a scale from 1 to 10) and feel free to note any additional side effects that were not included in this article.
Did any side effects emerge after your first adrafinil dose that faded with continued administration? Conversely, did any side effects emerge after an extended term of adrafinil administration that didn’t appear in the first few days and/or weeks of administration? Furthermore, assuming you experienced side effects, how can you verify that they were 100% from the adrafinil?
Have you ruled out potential confounding factors such as increased stress, poor sleep, co-ingested medications (or supplements), etc.? To help others get a better idea of your situation, mention: your adrafinil dosage (and frequency of administration), the specific company sourcing the adrafinil, genetic polymorphisms (of CYP450 isoenzymes) that may alter its metabolism, and co-ingested supplements/meds. Also share any mitigation strategies that you’ve found helpful to reduce adrafinil side effects.
Although adrafinil is unregulated in the U.S., evidence suggests that its side effect profile may be more burdensome than modafinil and armodafinil. Therefore, it should not be viewed as a first-line eugeroic nor preferred over well-tolerated pharmaceuticals (Provigil and Nuvigil). Adrafinil should only be utilized with proper medical guidance and regular check-ups (to assess liver function).