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CNQX as a Potential Drug Addiction Treatment via AMPA & Kainate Receptors (Glutamate) (2023 Study)

The journey to overcome addiction is fraught with challenges, not least due to the limited options available for pharmacological intervention. In recent research, the focus has shifted toward understanding the role of glutamate, a key neurotransmitter in the brain, in the development and persistence of addictive behaviors. One compound, CNQX, which antagonizes certain glutamate receptors, …

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tDCS for the Treatment of Cravings in Drug Addiction (2023 Review)

Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) emerges as a promising, noninvasive treatment for reducing cravings in substance addiction. This technique involves the use of scalp electrodes to modulate neural activity, influencing cravings associated with drug addiction or substance dependence. Despite its promise, further research is needed to standardize protocols and understand long-term efficacy. Highlights: tDCS significantly …

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Genetics of Tobacco Use Disorder (TUD) & Nicotine Addiction (2024 Study)

Tobacco use is a complex behavior influenced by both environmental factors and genetic predispositions. A recent study leveraging the UCLA ATLAS biobank explored the genetic underpinnings of Tobacco Use Disorder (TUD) and its systemic health effects using a Polygenic Score (PGS). Highlights: Genetic Underpinnings of Tobacco Use: The study used a European ancestry-derived PGS to …

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Long-Term Buprenorphine Treatment: The Impact of Genetic & Psychiatric Factors (2024 Study)

Opioid Use Disorder (OUD) remains a significant public health crisis, with buprenorphine emerging as a key medication in its treatment. Approved by the FDA, buprenorphine works as a partial opioid agonist, helping reduce opioid use and improve treatment retention rates compared to placebo. Despite its effectiveness, challenges in patient retention and optimal treatment duration persist. …

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Optimizing Nicotine Replacement Therapy (NRT) to Quit Smoking (2023 Evidence)

Nicotine Replacement Therapy (NRT) is a critical tool in the fight against smoking addiction, offering a beacon of hope for millions looking to quit. Recent studies have delved deep into the nuances of NRT, providing invaluable insights into its effectiveness, safety, and application. Highlights: Combination NRT has been found to be more effective than single-form …

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Epigenetics & Nicotine Addiction: Effects on Genes & Potential Treatments (2023)

Nicotine addiction is not just a habit; it’s a complex interplay of molecular changes altering the brain’s function and structure. Recent research sheds light on how nicotine interacts with our genetic makeup, leading to persistent cravings and relapse. Highlights: Nicotine & Epigenetic Modification: Nicotine alters the way genes are expressed in the brain, affecting behavior …

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Top Antidepressants to Quit Smoking: Bupropion & Nortriptyline (2023 Evidence Review)

In the ever-evolving fight against tobacco addiction, the potential of antidepressants, particularly bupropion and nortriptyline, as smoking cessation aids has come into sharp focus. A comprehensive review evaluated the efficacy, potential harms, and tolerability of these medications, providing insights into their role in helping smokers quit. Highlights: Bupropion significantly increases the chances of long-term smoking …

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