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Kratom Withdrawal Symptoms

Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) is an evergreen tree from the Rubiaceae (coffee) family that produces leaves containing numerous psychoactive compounds, most notably including indole alkaloids: 7-hydroxymitragynine, mitraphylline, and mitragynine.  When ingested by humans, the aforestated indole alkaloids significantly modulate CNS activity primarily via partial agonism of mu-opioid receptors (MORs).  In addition, evidence from pharmacodynamic investigations suggests …

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Clonidine For Opiate Withdrawal Symptoms: Does It Help?

Clonidine is an antihypertensive drug originally synthesized in the early 1960s by chemists employed under the pharmaceutical company Boehringer Ingelheim.  At the time, the chemists intended to develop a peripherally-active adrenergic nasal decongestant to be administered in the form of nose drops.  In the process, the chemists sought to modify amidines to fit the chemical …

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Gabapentin For Opiate Withdrawal

Gabapentin is rumored to have been synthesized by chemists in the 1970s in attempt to develop an antispasmodic agent.  After its synthesis, rights to gabapentin were acquired by Parke-Davis (a subsidiary of Pfizer) whereafter it underwent clinical trials that evaluated its safety and anticonvulsant efficacy in the treatment of seizures.  Clinical trial data indicated that …

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