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Pindolol For Depression: A Useful Antidepressant Adjunct?

Pindolol is a beta blocker initially synthesized by the pharmaceutical company Sandoz in the 1960s.  As of 1977 it received FDA approval for the management of hypertension and was sold under the brand name “Visken.”  Pharmacologically, pindolol acts as a non-selective beta blocker, meaning it competitively binds to all 3 beta-adrenergic receptor sites (Beta-1, Beta-2, …

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L-Tyrosine Benefits & Unestablished Claims (Scientific Research)

Tyrosine is a nonessential amino acid that was discovered circa 1846.  The word “tyrosine” is derived from the Greek word “tyros” which translates roughly to “cheese.” Tyrosine is most commonly cited as “L-tyrosine” or the levorotatory “L” enantiomer due to the fact that L-amino acids are manufactured in cells and used in protein synthesis; dextrorotatory …

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Nuvigil (Armodafinil) vs. Provigil (Modafinil): Comparison

Nuvigil and Provigil are both drugs that were approved by the FDA for the treatment of excessive daytime sleepiness.  Both drugs act as eugeroics and are considered “wakefulness-promoting agents” in that they are distinct from more potent, habit-forming psychostimulants (e.g. Adderall).  Provigil was initially approved in the late 1990s to help treat narcolepsy. Although the drug …

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