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Lateral Habenula & Depression: The Anti-Reward Center (Mechanisms & Antidepressant Treatments)

Depression is a complex and multifaceted disorder affecting millions worldwide. Emerging evidence suggests the lateral habenula, a small brain region, plays a crucial role in depression’s development and persistence. By influencing neurotransmitter systems and interacting with stress pathways, the lateral habenula’s dysfunction may lead to the classic symptoms of depression. Highlights: The lateral habenula is …

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Prolonged Antidepressant Effect of Ketamine: NMDA Receptors & Lateral Habenula “Trapping”

Ketamine causes rapid and sustained antidepressant effects that last longer than its presence in the body. This is due to ketamine getting trapped and accumulating in NMDA receptors, causing prolonged neural inhibition. Manipulating brain activity can shorten or extend ketamine’s effects. Highlights: Ketamine continues blocking NMDA receptors for 24 hours despite rapid elimination from plasma …

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